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Writing Peer Review TOP 10 Mistakes

Aggression levels of 5- to 6-year-old Turkish children in terms of gender, age, and peer relations variables.

The purpose of this study is to assess the aggression levels of 5-
to 6-year-old Turkish children in terms of various variables.
Participants of this study were 697 children (335 girls and 362 boys)
attending preschool. According to study results, the level of aggression
in Turkish children between ages 5 and 6 changed, based on all variables
in the research. The variables used to determine children's levels
of aggression were gender, age, prosocial behavior, asocial behavior,
exclusion, fearful-anxiety, hyperactivity-distractibility, and peer
victimization.

Keywords: aggression, preschool children, peer relationships,
gender, age

**********

In recent years, aggression has become an even more common behavior
at all levels of education, starting in preschool. Various studies refer
to the short- and long-term effects of aggressive behavior during the
preschool period, in particular. Aggressive behavior during the early
years of life may cause peer rejection, exclusion from their peer group,
loneliness, and academic failure. In the event that aggression
continues, more serious problems that may arise in later years include
depression, dropping out of school, and committing a crime, in addition
to peer rejection, exclusion, loneliness, and academic failure (Burr,
2005; Crick, Casas, & Mosher, 1997; Estell, 2007). Another finding
is that aggressive children experience unsteady and short-term
friendships during preschool in comparison to nonaggressive peers
(Johnson, 2002). In general, aggression refers to intentional or harmful
behaviors directed at other individuals or objects (Brook, Zheng,
Whiteman, & Brook, 2001; Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2001; Feldman,
2005; Ostrov, Gentile, & Crick, 2006). Harm can be physical
(hitting, pushing, kicking, etc.), as well as psychological (gossiping,
ruining relationships, etc.). Behavior of such intent is still
considered aggression, even if it does not harm the target directly.
Aggression is a special form of asocial behavior (Kempes, Matthys,
Vries, & Engeland, 2005). Aggressive children can harm other
individuals physically (kicking, hitting, pushing, pinching) and
verbally (lying, gossiping, swearing, insulting, arguing, threatening)
(Bonica, Arnold, Fisher, Zeljo, & Yershova, 2003; Brook et al.,
2001; Cillesen & Rose, 2005; Crick et al., 1997; Ladd & Burgess,
2001; Ly Valles & Knutson, 2008; Monks, Ruiz, & Val, 2002;
Ostrov & Keating, 2004; Peterson, 2001; Runions, 2008).

Aggression studies report that aggression is related to various
variables (Gulay, 2010; Ladd & Burgess, 2001). Gender is the most
common of these variables. A common finding for many short- and
long-term studies is that the physical aggression of boys is generally
higher than that of girls (Browne, 2009; Walker, 2009). In addition to
studies that conclude aggression decreases or increases depending on
age, some studies also indicate that aggression type changes (Archer
& Coyne, 2005; Gulay, 2010).

Another notable point concerning aggression is its adverse effect
on peer relationships (Brown, Odom, & Conroy, 2001; Malti, Gasser,
& Buchmann, 2009). It is known that aggressive children, compared to
their peers, exhibit less positive social behavior. Aggression also
gives rise to exclusion and being disliked in their peer group.
Furthermore, researchers (Estevez, Murgui, & Musitu, 2009; Perren
& Alsaker, 2009) stated that the possibility of being exposed to
peer violence is higher for aggressive children in comparison to
nonaggressive children. In their study, conducted on 1,401 Canadian
children between 4 and 10 years old, Vaillancourt, Miller, Fagbemi,
Cote, and Tremblay (2007) revealed that indirect aggression increases
the risk of psychosocial dissonance in future years. This research
indicates that aggression during preschool may continue in future years
(aggression at age 4 exhibits an increase up to age 6) and there was a
relation between hyperactivity and aggression during preschool. Bowen
(2005) observed and collected teacher and parent forms of 554 children
between ages 6 and 12 for his study; he concluded aggression that starts
during preschool continues until middle childhood.

In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted for different
cultures regarding the aggression level of children and its effects.
Results concluded that the aggression level of children increased
(Ostrov & Crick, 2007; Valles & Knutson, 2008; von Knorring,
Soderberg, Austin, & Unvas-Moberg, 2008). Studies demonstrate that
aggression harms children's social relations and increases the
possibility of being exposed to peer violence and being rejected by
peers. Aggressive children are violent toward their peers and exposed to
their violence more. In addition, these children are disliked and
rejected by their peers (Flanders, Leo, Paquette, Pihl, & Seguin,
2009; Hay, Payne, & Chadwick, 2004; Ladd & Burgess, 2001; Marcus
& Kramer, 2001; Peterson, 2001). Studies conducted in Turkey
demonstrate that the level of aggression in children is increasing
(Efilti, 2006; Eroglu, 2009; Yemen, 2008).

Factors such as the increase in TV channels, especially after the
1990s; the increase in the number of crowded classrooms in big cities;
and the difference in socioeconomic levels and urbanization have been
influential in the increased level of aggression in children (Bierman,
2005; Ostrov et al., 2006; Taner-Derman, 2009). Studies conducted in
Turkey regarding issues such as aggression, peer relations, and peer
violence generally focus on elementary schools, high schools, and
universities (Eroglu, 2009; Kilicarslan & Atici, 2010; Pekel, 2004;
Uzbas, 2010).

The number of studies on aggression and peer relations during
preschool are limited. There is a need for such studies in Turkey to
prevent aggression during preschool and future years. The starting point
is establishing the dynamics of aggression development during the early
years of life. Determining development, structure, and its relationship
with other variables of aggressive behavior will help in establishing
training programs and practices that prevent aggression. As studies,
conducted for different cultures, identify a relationship between
aggression during preschool and different dimensions of peer relations
(prosocial behavior, asocial behavior, social status, exclusion, etc.),
results obtained regarding the aggression level and peer relations of
preschool children in Turkey will contribute to current subject-related
literature. As stated above, age, gender, and various peer relationship
variables (prosocial behavior, asocial behavior, exclusion levels,
fearful-anxiety levels, hyperactivity-distractibility, and peer
victimization) may be associated with aggression. Thus, the purpose of
this study is to investigate the aggression level of 5- to 6-year-old
Turkish children and whether it changed based on gender and age,
prosocial behavior, asocial behavior, level of exclusion, level of
fearful-anxiety, level of hyperactivity-distractibility, and level of
peer victimization.

METHOD

Participants

A screening model was used for this study. The population of the
study comprised children between ages 5 and 6 attending the kindergarten
class of primary schools affiliated with the Ministry of National
Education, located in the city center of Denizli. The sample group of
the study was selected using a random sampling method. A list of all
primary schools located in the city center were obtained from the
Denizli Provincial Directorate for National Education. Twenty primary
schools were drawn from a hat from among the primary schools on the
list. Eleven of the 20 selected schools agreed to participate in the
study. Permission was obtained from the Denizli Provincial Directorate
for National Education for the schools to participate in the study.
Participants were selected from the 11 kindergarten classes of the
selected schools: 697 Turkish children between ages 5 and 6 (335 girls,
48.1%, and 362 boys, 59.1%). The average age of the children was 5
years, 4 months, 19 days (minimum, 4 years, 28 days; maximum, 6 years,
10 months). All of the children had normal development properties and
lived with their parents. Participating children were from moderate
socioeconomic level families.

Measures

Demographic data form. The form included questions regarding the
children's demographic characteristics.

Child Behavior Scale. The Child Behavior Scale is a teacher-rating
measurement tool, developed by Ladd and Profilet in 1996 to evaluate
peer relations of preschool children. The 44-item scale has six
subscales: aggression, prosocial behavior, asocial behavior,
fearful-anxiety, exclusion, and hyperactivity-distractibility (Ladd
& Profilet, 1996). No overall score is obtainable for this scale.
Every subscale is scored individually; therefore, all scales are used
independently. All subscales of the Child Behavior Scale were used in
this study. The aggression level of children was determined using the
Aggression Subscale. The Aggression Subscale has seven items: four
measure reactive aggression and three measure relational aggression. The
Aggression Subscale score can range between 7 and 21. The prosocial
behavior subscale has 10 items and can range between 10 and 30. The
asocial behavior subscale consists of seven items and can range between
7 and 21. The fearful-anxiety subscale consists of nine items and can
range between 9 and 27. The Exclusion Subscale consists of seven items
and can range between 7 and 21. The hyperactivity-distractibility
subscale consists of four items and can range between 7 and 21.

Intercorrelation coefficients of subscales of the Child Behavior
Scale show variance between .278 and .664. This result expresses that
the intercorrelations of the subscales are significant between .05 and
.001 (Gulay, 2008). For this study, there was a significant negative
relationship between the intercorrelation of the Aggression Subscale and
the intercorrelation of the prosocial behavior subscale (-.49, p <
.01). There was a significant positive relationship between the
Aggression Subscale and the asocial behavior subscale (.17, p < .01).
There was a significant positive relationship between the Aggression
Subscale and the fearful-anxiety subscale (.37, p < .01). There was a
significant positive relationship between the Aggression Subscale and
the Exclusion Subscale (.49, p < .01), and there was a significant
positive relationship between the Aggression Subscale and the
hyperactivity-distractibility subscale (.64, p < .01). These results
prove that subscales can be used independently.

Items of the entire scale are evaluated according to expressions
never, sometimes, and always. The internal consistency coefficient of
the entire scale was .81 at the end of the reliability study, conducted
after the linguistic equivalence study, to adapt the scale into Turkish
(Gulay, 2008). The internal consistency coefficient was .87 for the
Aggression Subscale, .88 for the prosocial behavior subscale, .84 for
the asocial behavior subscale, .78 for the fearful-anxiety behavior
subscale, .89 for the Exclusion Subscale, and .83 for the
hyperactivity-distractibility subscale. Statistics of content validity,
construct validity, criterion-related validity, and discriminative
strength of scales were tested to assess the validity of Ladd and
Profilet's Child Behavior Scale, and its subscales. Analyses
results indicated that Ladd and Profilet's Child Behavior Scale,
and its subscales, were reliable and valid (Gulay, 2008).

Victimization Scale. The Victimization Scale is a teacher-rating
measurement tool developed by Ladd and Kochenderfer-Ladd in 2002, based
on teacher reports of 5- to 6-year-old children. The scale includes a
total of four items, each of which focuses on one of the four types of
peer aggression (physical, indirect, direct, and general). Each item was
evaluated with expressions never, sometimes, and always. The internal
consistency coefficient for the original scale was determined as .73
(Ladd & Kochenderfer-Ladd, 2002). Linguistic equivalence,
reliability, and validity studies of the scale were carried out by Gulay
in 2008. The internal consistency coefficient of the scale was .72. The
highest available score for the scale is 12, and the lowest score is 4
(Gulay, 2008).

Procedure

A Demographic Data Form, the Ladd and Profilet Child Behavior
Scale, and the Victimization Scale were filled out by teachers between
April and May of 2009. Before initiating the application, teachers were
informed by the researcher about the scales and the objective of the
research. A permission letter was also obtained from parents allowing
their children to participate in this study. Teachers completed forms
based on their general observations regarding the children over a period
of about 7 months. Researchers visited the schools on a weekly basis
during the data gathering period to answer teachers' queries.

Data Analysis

A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0) program
was used to conduct data analysis. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the
level of aggression for the children in the sample group according to
gender and age. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the level of aggression
for the children in the sample group according to peer relationships
variables. Average points of aggression were calculated to assess the
level of aggression in children as per variables of peer relations;
scores below the average were categorized as "low," and scores
above average were categorized as "high."

RESULTS

Table 1 illustrates the descriptive analyses of aggression levels
according to gender and age. As illustrated in Table 2, there was a
statistically significant difference between the average aggression
scores of girls and boys, F(1,693) = 37.808, p = .000. This difference
implies that aggression levels of boys were higher than those of girls.
Thus, it can be concluded that gender has a significant effect on
aggression levels. Table 2 also indicates a statistically significant
difference between the average aggression level scores of 5- and
6-year-old children, F(1,693) = 12.641, p < .000. Accordingly,
aggression levels of 5-year-old children were higher in comparison to
the aggression levels of 6-year-old children. This result indicates that
age has a significant effect on aggressive behavior. According to
another result illustrated in the table, gender and age have no
statistically significant common effect on aggression levels, F(1,693) =
.953, p > .000.

Table 3 illustrates the means and standard deviations of aggression
according to prosocial behavior. As illustrated in Table 4, there was a
statistically significant difference between the average aggression
level score of different prosocial behavior levels, F(1,695) = 83.107, p
< .000. This result proves that prosocial behavior has a significant
effect on aggressive behavior.

Table 5 illustrates descriptive results of aggression levels
according to asocial behavior. As illustrated in Table 6, there was
statistically significant difference between the average aggression
level score of asocial behavior levels, F(1,695) = 21.047, p < .000.
This result indicates that the level of asocial behavior has a
significant effect on aggressive behavior.

According to Table 7, the average aggression level for students
with high exclusion levels was higher in comparison to students with a
lower level of exclusion. Table 8 illustrates that there was a
statistically significant difference between the average aggression
level scores at different levels of exclusion, F(1,695) = 140.444, p
< .000.

Results illustrate that students with a higher level of
fearful-anxiety have a higher aggression level in comparison to students
who are less fearful-anxious (Table 9). As illustrated in Table 10,
there was a statistically significant difference between the average
aggression level scores based on the level of fearful-anxiety, F(1,695)
= 10.071, p < .000.

According to descriptive results (Table 11), there was no
statistically significant difference between the aggression levels of
children based on their hyperactivity-distractibility levels. As
illustrated in Table 12, there was no statistically significant
difference between the average aggression level scores based on
hyperactivity-distractibility levels, F(1,695) = 192.136, p < .000.

Table 13 illustrates the aggression means and standard deviations
of children who are exposed to more and less peer violence. As
illustrated in Table 14, there was no statistically significant
difference between the average aggression level scores based on peer
victimization levels, F(1,695) = 265.703, p < .000.

DISCUSSION

In conclusion of study results, conducted to investigate the
aggression level of Turkish children, the aggression level of children
between ages 5 and 6 varied based on gender, age, prosocial behavior,
asocial behavior, exclusion, fearful-anxiety, hyperactivity, and peer
victimization levels.

Gender

According to results, the aggression level of boys was higher in
comparison to the agression level of girls. Other subject-related
studies also obtained similar results (Bierman, 2005; David, 2004;
Erwin, 1993) in favor of boys. Boys can exhibit stricter, more
oppressive, verbal, and physical aggression toward peers in comparison
to girls. It has been proven that girls display verbal aggression more
frequently (Archer, 2009; Strayer & Roberts, 2004; Walker, 2004),
and researchers (Corr & Perkins, 2009; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1980;
Wimbarti, 2002) have indicated that this situation stems from biological
and sociocultural factors. Factors such as upbringing and gender are
also related to the variance observed in aggressive behavior. In Turkish
culture, as with many other cultures, behavior such as dynamism, being
active, and being oppressive is tolerated more in boys than in girls.
Girls are expected to be calmer, more well behaved, and more passive.
Such a point of view, which can be shaped according to gender, affects
the way children express their aggressive behavior, and its frequency.

Age

According to this study, 5-year-old children are more aggressive in
comparison to 6-year-old children. Studies (Farwer, 1996; Gulay &
Akman, 2009) indicate that 4-year-old children, at a stage when they
start establishing friendships, can adopt aggressive behaviors through
imitation. As age proceeds, it is expected that there will be a decrease
in aggressive behavior, especially during preschool; new social and
language skills are learned through maturity (Connor, Steingard,
Cunningham, Anderson, & Melloni, 2004; Fujisawa, Kutsukake, &
Hasegawa, 2006; Tallandini, 2004). This raises the question of rapid
development, noticeable within an age range during preschool. Every age
brings new skills, behaviors, and competencies. Hence, aggressive
behavior is less in 6-year-olds than in 5-year-olds; this is the result
of experience and maturity with age. There is one study with results
that differ from the results of this study. According to the results of
a study conducted on 450 children by Gulay (2011), a statistically
significant difference exists between the aggression level of 5- to
6-year-old children based on gender; however, there was no statistically
significant difference between the aggression level of 5- to 6-year-old
children based on age. According to another study result, the gender and
age of the child had no joint effect on aggression level. Gulay (2011)
reported that the gender and age of the child had no joint effect on
their aggression level.

Prosocial Behavior

Results conclude that children with a higher level of prosocial
behavior have lower aggression; this result is in accordance with other
studies carried out on other cultures. Johnson (2002) and Crick et al.
(1997) identified that aggressive little children lack certain prosocial
behavior elements, such as empathy or emotional regularity. Some studies
(Meehan, Hughes, & Cavell, 2003; Pianta, Steinberg, & Rollins,
1995) report that nonaggressive children exhibit a higher level of
prosocial behavior in comparison to aggressive children, and that their
level of social adaptation is higher. A study of 399 twins and
singletons living in Canada, conducted by Renouf et al. (2010), found
that physical aggression was negatively associated with prosocial
behavior. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior carried out to help
others; therefore, it has an opposite structure compared to aggression.
The fact that children who display aggressive behavior do not display
behavior for the good of others is an expected result.

Asocial Behavior

This study proves that children with asocial behavior have higher
aggression levels. Moreover, Wimbarti (2002) emphasized that aggression
tendencies of children with fewer social skills were higher in
comparison to children with more social skills. Positive social behavior
may decrease as a result of aggression. Because aggression brings about
exclusion and being exposed to peer violence over time, asocial behavior
may increase (Werner, Cassidy, & Juliano, 2006). Monks et al. (2002)
investigated the aggression level of preschool children between age 4
and 6 and concluded that aggression has an adverse effect on the social
development of children and may cause them to be excluded and refused by
peers. In a way, aggression is accepted as an asocial behavior. In
addition, aggressive children are excluded because of their harmful
behavior toward their peers. Having asocial behavior and being excluded
due to such behavior may increase the level of asocial behavior in
children as a reaction toward their peers.

Exclusion

In the sample group, children with a high level of exclusion
portrayed aggressive behavior more frequently toward peers. Several
studies conclude that aggressive children are disliked by their peers,
and that they can be excluded from games and activities (Peterson, 2001;
Wood, Cowan, & Baker, 2002). Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, and Lagerspetz
(2000) found that physical and relational aggression leads to peer
rejection for both genders. Sebanc (2003) investigated friendship
relationships of 98 children between age 3 and 5 based on various
variables. Results show that friendship exclusivity/intimacy was
positively associated with relational aggression. It is possible to
think that children display more aggression, or continue their
aggressive behavior, to attract attention and show reaction. The
interaction between asocial behavior and aggressive behavior proves that
aggressive children are excluded from their peer groups, are not liked
by their friends, and are rejected because of their harmful behavior.

Fearful-Anxiety

Studies have proven that children who are more fearful and anxious
among peers tend to be more aggressive. Developing the interpersonal and
social skills of children along with their emotional competence can make
them more comfortable within their peer group and allow them to display
prosocial behavior more frequently (Stefan, Balaj, Porump, Albu, &
Miclea, 2009). Children who harm their peers in various ways are harmed
by other children in similar ways. Additionally, it is highly possible
that their peers will not like them, will reject them, and will exclude
them. Such situations that increase negative social interactions
influence the fear and anxiety levels of aggressive children.

Hyperactivity-Distractibility

This study identified that children with high
hyperactivity-distractibility levels are more aggressive. When Lerner,
Inui, Trupin, and Douglas (1985) observed preschool children after age
11.5, they indicated that aggressive behavior that was present during
preschool continued as behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity and
exclusion. Besides, various other studies (Dodge, Lochman, Harnish,
Bates, & Pettit, 1997; Matos, Bauermeister, & Bernal, 2009)
prove that hyperactivity and distractibility are related to oppressive
and aggressive behavior. Another study result that overlaps with results
stated in the literature is that hyperactive and easily distracted
children in peer groups are more aggressive in comparison to those who
are not so hyperactive and easily distracted. Hardhandedness and
impatience toward other children can be attributes of hyperactivity.
This attitude may result in harmful behavior, such as aggression, to get
what they want. In distractibility, it is thought that children display
aggressive behavior as a reaction when something is not right in their
social relationships due to being easily distracted.

Peer Victimization

According to some studies, there is a possibility that children who
exhibit aggressive behavior during preschool are exposed to more peer
violence (Kempes et al., 2005; Olweus, 2003; Pekel, 2004). In their
study, conducted on 168 preschoolers, Hanish, Ryan, and Martin (2005)
reported that aggressive children were at risk of peer vicitimization.
This study determined that children with high aggression levels were
exposed to more peer violence, which is a result that supports the
literature. It is a known fact that children who harm others physically
or verbally are excluded, rejected, and not included in games by their
peers and experience aggression in return, especially from children who
are physically stronger. As a result, there is a possibility that
children who display aggressive behavior are punished with aggression
from other children.

CONCLUSION

Results concluded that aggression levels may differ depending on
the level of negative behavior in peer relationships. Early childhood is
an important period in terms of a child learning first social skills
(McClelland & Morrison, 2003). Behaviors necessary for healthy
social interactions that may affect academic success later on are taught
during this period (Burchinal, Roberts, Zeisel, Hennon, & Hooper,
2006). Some studies (Strayer & Roberts, 2004; Vitaro, Brendgen,
& Barker, 2006; Wilson, 2006) indicate that aggressive behavior is
directly related to adverse behavior within the peer group (exclusion,
asocial behavior, experiencing peer violence). Aggressive children
display a high level of angry reactivity and low frustration tolerance.
They also may experience problems in regulating their emotions.
Aggressive children may have social problems within their peer groups
(Hay et al., 2004; Kimonis et al., 2006). According to results of a
study conducted on Turkish children by Gulay (2008), aggressive behavior
increases negative behavior, which gives rise to children being excluded
and rejected by their peer group, and being exposed to peer violence. On
the other hand, positive behavior improves peer relations and leads to
children being liked and accepted by their peer groups. It is an
expected development task that children are socially competent during
preschool (Denham, 2007). Having social skills and prosocial behavior
enables young children to make more friends, be liked by their friends
more, and be accepted by their peers (Shin et al., 2011). Results of
this study support the findings that underline the negative impacts of
aggression on peer relations.

The Aggression Subscale is limited, with items concerning physical
and verbal aggression. Because the types of aggression are quite
diverse, different results can be obtained from performed applications
with assessments that take into account other or all dimensions (overt,
proactive, reactive etc.). The peer relation variables of the sample
group are limited to the Child Behavior Scale. Studies should be carried
out that address different variables and use measuring instruments that
contain various variables, such as social status and peer
acceptance-rejection. This study individually addressed a limited number
of variables, such as age and gender, together with aggression. Studies
should be conducted that address the effects of more than one variable
(such as age and gender, and particularly aggression) on peer relations.
The data in the study are limited to the teacher's point of view.
Information provided from different sources, such as peer evaluations
and observations, should be utilized as well as the teacher's point
of view.

It is remarkable that findings concerning the interaction between
aggression and peer relations during preschool are supported by many
related studies carried out on various cultures. In accordance with the
results, studies can be carried out concerning the identification of
aggression types in preschool children. Social skills training programs
can be offered to children with high aggression levels. Studies should
be conducted regarding the reduction of negative behavior in peer
groups, and peer violence. Preschool education in Turkey should be
rendered widespread in order to enable children to build positive
behavior skills at an early age. Popularizing preschool education,
especially in developing countries such as Turkey, also carries grave
importance in resolving children's behavioral disorders. At the
same time, preschool teachers should be informed about aggression and
peer relationships. Thus, behavior problems experienced by children can
be recognized at the earliest stage and the necessary interventions can
be made. Study results conclude that age and gender can affect
aggression levels. Therefore, social skills training should be given to
children on a regular basis from an early age. Studies should be
conducted that investigate the effect gender has on the behavior changes
of young children. Social skills programs with family participation
should be offered to children in an effort to support positive social
behavior.

DOI: 10.1080/02568543.2012.739987

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<ADD> Hulya Gulay Ogelman Pamukkale University, Kinikli
Campus, Denizli, Turkey </ADD>

Submitted August 4, 2011; accepted September 12, 2011.

Address correspondence to Hulya Gulay Ogelman, Department of
Preschool Education, Pamukkale University, Kinikli Campus, 20020
Denizli, Turkey. E-mail: hulya.gulay@gmail.com

TABLE 1

Descriptive Statistical Results of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children
About Their Levels of Aggression in Terms of Gender and Age

Age          Gender      n      [bar.X]      SD

5 years       Girl      170     1.7882     2.570
               Boy      189     2.8677     3.456
              Total     359     2.3565     3.111

6 years       Girl      165     0.8424     1.460
               Boy      173     2.3295     2.986
              Total     338     1.6036     2.478

Total         Girl      335     1.3224     2.148
               Boy      362     2.6105     3.247
              Total     697     1.9914     2.845

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 2

Results of Variance Analysis Showing the Levels of Aggression of
Children in Terms of Gender and Age

Source of      Sum of      df     [Mean.sup.2]      F         p
variance      squares

Gender          286.220       1        286.620   37.808 *    .000
Age              95.698       1         95.698   12.641 *    .000
G * A             7.218       1          7.218      .953     .329
Error          5246.192     693          7.570
Total          5635.948     696

Note. G * A = gender x age.

* p < .001.

TABLE 3

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding the
Aggression Level of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in
Terms of Prosocial Behavior

Prosocial behavior       n     [bar.X]      SD

Low                     371     2.8625    3.4257
High                    326     1.0000    1.4592
Total                   697     1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] - arithmetic average.

TABLE 4

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old  Children in Terms of Prosocial Behavior

Source of           Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.2]      F         p
variance            squares

Between subjects     601.959      1        601.959   83.107 *   .000
Within subjects     5033.989    695          7.243
Total               5635.948    696

* p < .001.

TABLE 5

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding Aggression Levels
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of Asocial Behavior

Asocial behavior    n     [bar.X]     SD

Low                 429    1.6061    2.4401
High                268    2.6082    3.3081
Total               697    1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 6

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of Asocial Behavior

Source of            Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.2]      F         p
variance            squares

Between subjects      165.662      1        165.662   21.047 *   .000
Within subjects      5470.286    695          7.841
Total                5635.948    696

* p < .001.

TABLE 7

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of the Level of Exclusion

Exclusion     n     [bar.X]      SD

Low          514     1.2957    1.9057
High         183     3.9454    3.9401
Total        697     1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 8

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of the Level of Exclusion

Source of            Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.]       F         p
variance             squares

Between subjects      947.444      1       947.444   140.444 *   .000
Within subjects      4688.504    695         6.746
Total                5635.948    696

* p < .001.

TABLE 9

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding the
Aggression Level of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in
Terms of the Level of Fearful-Anxiety

Fearful-anxiety      n     [bar.X]      SD

Low                  400     1.1375    1.8102
High                 297     3.1414    3.5087
Total                697     1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 10

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of the Level of Fearful-Anxiety

Source of            Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.2]      F         p
variance             squares

Between subjects      684.450      1        684.450   19.071 *   .000
Within subjects      4951.498    695          7.124
Total                5635.948    696
* p < .001.

TABLE 11

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding the Aggression Level of
5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of
Hyperactivity-Distractibility Levels

Hyperactivity-distractibility     n     [bar.X]      SD

Low                               361      .7147    1.1638
High                              336     3.3631    3.4241
Total                             697     1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 12

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of
Hyperactivity-Distractibility Levels

Source of            Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.2]       F         P
variance             squares

Between subjects     1220.634      1       1220.634   192.136 *    .000
Within subjects      4415.315    695          6.353
Total                5635.948    696

* P < .001.

TABLE 13

Descriptive Statistical Results Regarding the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of Peer Victimization Levels

Peer victimization      n     [bar.X]      SD

Low                     646     1.5712    2.2100
High                     51     7.3137    4.3058
Total                   697     1.9914    2.8456

Note. [bar.X] = arithmetic average.

TABLE 14

Results of Variance Analysis Illustrating the Aggression Level
of 5- to 6-Year-Old Children in Terms of Peer Victimization Levels

Source of           Sum of      df    [Mean.sup.2]       F         p
variance            squares

Between subjects    1558.743      1       1558.743   265.703 *   .000
Within subjects     4077.205    695          5.866
Total               5635.948    696

* p < .001.

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